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Vatican City
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Vatican City, Popes Leo XIII Works






Vatican City

Rerum NovarumRerum Novarum - Encyclical on capital and labor, promulgated 15 May, 1891. The birth of modern Catholic social teaching, as the pope wrestles with the alienating effects of the Industrial Revolution. 82K.

Aeterni PatrisAeterni Patris - On the Restoration of Christian Philosophy. Encyclical promulgated 4 August, 1879. Philosophy can be a powerful aid to apologetics and theology. Commends Scholasticism in particular.
Apostolicae CuraeApostolicae Curae - Papal bull on the nullity of Anglican orders, issued 18 September, 1896. Pronounces Anglican ordinations "absolutely null and utterly void." Augustissimae Virginis MariaeAugustissimae Virginis Mariae - Encyclical on the Confraternity of the Rosary. Promulgated 12 September, 1897.
Auspicato ConcessumAuspicato Concessum - On St. Francis of Assisi. Encyclical promulgated 17 September, 1882. Custodi di quella fedeCustodi di quella fede - Encyclical addressed to the Italian people in particular, repeats condemnation of Freemasonry. Promulgated 8 December, 1892.

Vatican City








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